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Earthquakes in Madhya Pradesh, India

State - Madhya Pradesh, India
Capital - Bhopal
Population - 60,385,118 (2001)

Million+ Cities
Indore - pop. 1,639,044
Bhopal - pop. 1,454,830
Jabalpur - pop. 1,117,200

Population per district (Top 5)
Indore - pop. 2,465,827
- pop. 2
Sagar - pop. 2
Rewa - pop. 1
Satna - pop. 1

Earthquake History
In peninsula India the state of Madhya Pradesh, along with Gujarat and Maharashtra, has suffered from frequent earthquakes, both deadly and damaging, although not located on or near any plate boundaries. All the earthquakes here, as in all of peninsula India, are intraplate events. Most of the activity is confined to the Narmada-Son fault zone which runs across the state. Several faults have been identified in this region out of which many show evidence of movement (1) during the Holocene epoch. Among them and the most prominent is the Narmada-Son South Fault (1) zone that runs from near Khargaon in western Madhya Pradesh in an east-northeasterly direction right upto the Rihand reservoir in southern Jharkhand in the east. The Gavilgadh Fault (1) extends from near Bhusawal in Maharashtra and extends up to Seoni district in Madhya Pradesh. In the north, the Great Boundary Fault (1) runs along the Chambal river which forms the state border with Rajasthan. This fault has repeatedly reactivated in the past (1) changing the course of the Chambal and Yamuna rivers. However, it must be stated that proximity to faults does not necessarily translate into a higher hazard as compared to areas located further away, as damage from earthquakes depends on numerous factors such as subsurface geology as well as adherence to the building codes.

Seismic Hazard

The seismic hazard map of India was updated in 2000 (5) by the Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS). Apart from the merging of Zones I and II into Zone II in the latest map, there are no major changes from the BIS 1984 map. Zone III stretches across the length of the state, and includes all the districts that lie in the Narmada and Son Valleys, where the maximum expected intensity is VII (MSK). The rest of the state, i.e. north and south of the Narmada-Son Valleys, including the capital, Bhopal, lie in Zone II, where the maximum expected intensity is VI (MSK). Since the earthquake database in India is still incomplete, especially with regards to earthquakes prior to the historical period (before 1800 A.D.), these zones offer a rough guide of the earthquake hazard in any particular region and need to be regularly updated (See also: GSHAP Hazard Map for Madhya Pradesh).

Largest Instrumented Earthquake in Madhya Pradesh
02 June 1927 - Umaria area, Madhya Pradesh, Mw 6.4 (9)
23.500 N, 81.000E, 16:37:34 UTC (9)
This earthquake was located in Madhya Pradesh's Umaria District.  It was a deep-seated event and was felt (12) at Allahabad in Uttar Pradesh and Dehri-on-Son in Bihar as well as in many parts of central and eastern India.

Significant Earthquakes  in Madhya Pradesh
The following list briefly outlines known earthquakes in this region which either had observed intensities of
VI or higher (historical events) or had known magnitudes of M5.0 or more (instrumented events). General locations are provided for historical events for which "generalized" epicentral co-ordinates are available. Some events which were significant for other reasons are also included. This list will be updated whenever newer information is available. Please note that Magnitude and Intensity are NOT THE SAME. All events are within the state or union territory covered on this page unless stated otherwise.

Acronyms Used:
D=Depth, OT=Origin Time, Mw=Moment Magnitude, Ms=Surface Wave magnitude, Mb=Body Wave Magnitude, ML=Local Magnitude, M?=Magnitude Type unknown

This listing will be modified without notice. Please check back for the latest version when using it elsewhere. Additionally, please reproduce using appropriate CITATIONS/CREDITS.

18 November 1863 - Nagalwadi-Julwania area, Madhya Pradesh.
21.800 N, 75.300 E (6)
Maximum observed intensity VI (6). This region lies along the border of Maharashtra in the Khandwa area of Madhya Pradesh.

17 May 1903 - Bargi-Jabalpur area, Madhya Pradesh, Ms 5.0 (1).
23.000 N, 80.000 E (1)
Maximum observed intensity VI (6).

31 December 1926 - Badarwas-Digod area, Madhya Pradesh.
25.000 N, 77.500 E, OT=16:53:45 UTC (7)
Maximum observed intensity VII (7).

02 June 1927 - Umaria area, Madhya Pradesh, Mw 6.4 (9)
23.500 N, 81.000E, 16:37:34 UTC (9)
This earthquake was located in Madhya Pradesh's Umaria District.  It was a deep-seated event and was felt (12) at Allahabad in Uttar Pradesh and Dehri-on-Son in Bihar as well as in many parts of central and eastern India.

11 April 1929 - Badarwas-Digod area, Madhya Pradesh.
25.000 N, 77.500 E, OT=23:53 UTC (7)
Maximum observed intensity VII (7).

25 June 1930 - Sirsod-Shivpuri area, Madhya Pradesh, Ms 5.6 (1)
25.500 N, 77.500 E (1), OT=00:49 UTC (7)
Maximum observed intensity VII (7). This earthquake is also referred to as the Lukwasa earthquake.

14 March 1938 - Bhusawal-Sawda area, Maharashtra, Mw 6.3 (9).
21.130 N, 75.830 E, D=040.0 kms, OT=00:48:38 UTC (1)
Maximum observed intensity VII (1). This earthquake was felt over a wide region, including at Agra in the north and Mumbai in the west. Deep-seated event (9), with a focal depth (JSTN) of 40 kilometres.

25 August 1957 - Lalburra-Tikari area, Madhya Pradesh, Ms 5.5 (1).
22.000 N, 80.000 E, OT=21:04:50 UTC (1)
The district of Balaghat in Madhya Pradesh and Bhandara in Maharashtra were affected. 25 fatalities are reported for this event. The epicentre of this earthquake was north of the town of Waraseoni in Madhya Pradesh and the town of Gondia in Maharashtra.

18 April 1987 - Paunar-Amarwara area, Madhya Pradesh, mb 4.9 (8).
22.346 N, 79.259 E, D=033.0 kms, OT=16:59:48 UTC (8)
Felt in the epicentral area.

31 August 1994 - Gwalior-Gohad (Bhind) area, Madhya Pradesh, Ms 4.8 (3)
26.300 N, 78.400 E, D=008.0 kms, OT=23:30:00 UTC (3)
Maximum observed intensity MSK VI and VII (1) in an area to the south of Bhind and east of Gwalior. Felt at MSK IV-V (1) in many northern districts of Madhya Pradesh and adjoining areas of Uttar Pradesh and Rajasthan. This event is known as the Bhind earthquake.

22 May 1997 - Barela-Jabalpur area, Madhya Pradesh, Mw 5.8 (8)
23.083 N, 80.041 E, D=036.0 kms, OT=22:51:28 UTC (8)
38 people were killed, and more than a thousand were hurt in the city of Jabalpur and the surrounding areas. This was the first major earthquake to be centred near a densely populated urban area since 1947.

16 October 2000 - Kundam area, Madhya Pradesh, Mb 4.4
A light earthquake struck Jabalpur and the adjoining parts of eastern Madhya Pradesh, on 16 October 2000 at 18:11 PM local time and was felt in many parts of the region resulting in minor damage. It had a magnitude of Mb=4.4.

01) Dasgupta, S., Pande, P., Ganguly, D., Iqbal, Z, Sanyal, K, Venkatraman, N.V., Dasgupta, S., Sural, B., Harendranath, L., Mazumdar, K., Sanyal, S., Roy, K., Das, L.K., Misra, P.S., Gupta, H.,  "Seismotectonic Atlas of India and its Environs", Geological Survey of India, 2000.

02) Giardini, D., Grünthal, G., Shedlock, K.M., Zhang, P., "The GSHAP Global Seismic Hazard Map", Annali di Geofisica, Vol. 42, No.6, p. 1225 - 1230, 1999.

03) India Meteorological Department, Lodhi Road, New Delhi.

International Seismological Centre, On-line Bulletin, http://www.isc.ac.uk/Bull, Internatl. Seis. Cent., Thatcham, United Kingdom, 2001.

IS 1893 (Part 1): 2002 Indian Standard Criteria for Earthquake Resistant Design of Structures Part 1 General Provisions and Buildings (Fifth Revision).

Rao, B. Ramalingeswara and Rao, P. Sitapathi, "Historical seismicity of Peninsular India", Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, Vol. 74, No. 6, pp.2519-2533, 1984.

Tandon, A.N., and Srivastava, H.N., "Earthquake occurrence in India: Earthquake Engineering (Jai Krishna Vol.)", pp. 1 - 48, Sarita Prakashan, Meerut, 1974.

U.S. Geological Survey, National Earthquake Information Center, Golden, CO, USA.

Johnston, A.C., Report TR-102261, Electric Power Research Institute, Chap.3, 1993.

10) Ambraseys, N. and Jackson, D., "A note on early earthquakes in northern India and southern Tibet", Current Science, Vol. 84, No. 4, 25 February 2003.

11) Iyengar, R.N, Sharma, D, and Siddiqui, J.M, "Earthquake History of India in Medieval Times", Indian Journal of history Science, 34 (3), 1999.

12) Chandra, U., "Earthquakes of Peninsular India--A seismotectonic study", Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, Vol. 67, No. 5, pp. 1387 - 1413, 1977.

13) Wessel, P., and Smith, W.H.F., "Free software helps map and display data", EOS Trans., AGU, 1991, 72, 441, 445.

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