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Earthquakes in Jammu & Kashmir, India

State - Jammu & Kashmir, India
Capital - Srinagar
Population - 10,069,917 (2001)

Population per district (Top 5)
Jammu - pop. 1,588,772
Srinagar
- pop. 1
,202,447
Anantnag - pop. 1,172,434
Baramulla - pop. 1,169,780
Udhampur - pop.
743,509


Earthquake History
The state of Jammu & Kashmir is the western most extension of the Himalayan mountain range in India. Here it comprises of the Pir Panjal, Zaskar, Karakoram and Ladakh ranges. The boundary of the Punjab plain and the mountains forms the Himalayan Frontal Thrust (HFF), which in this area is the Murree Thrust. The Main Boundary Thrust (MBT) underlies the Pir Panjal Range and is known as the Pir Panjal Thrust in the region. The Zaskar range which are part of the Great Himalayan range are underlain by the Zaskar Thrust. The Kashmir Valley lies between the Pir Panjal and the Zaskar thrusts, making it very vulnerable to earthquakes. Other northern parts of Jammu & Kashmir are heavily faulted. Along the Zaskar and the Ladakh ranges runs a NW-SE trending strike-slip fault, the longest in the Jammu & Kashmir area. Apart from the routine small tremors moderate to large earthquakes have hit nearly all parts of the state. However, it must be stated that proximity to faults does not necessarily translate into a higher hazard as compared to areas located further away, as damage from earthquakes depends on numerous factors such as subsurface geology as well as adherence to the building codes.

Seismic Hazard

Kashmir North and Kashmir South districts lie in Zone V. Gilgit, Chilas, Gilgit Wazarat, Muzaffarabad, Punch, Anantnag, Mirapur, Riasi, Udhampur, Jammu, Kathua, Leh, Ladakh and Tribal Territory districts lie in Zone IV. Since the earthquake database in India is still incomplete, especially with regards to earthquakes prior to the historical period (before 1800 A.D.), these zones offer a rough guide of the earthquake hazard in any particular region and need to be regularly updated (See also: GSHAP Hazard Map for Jammu & Kashmir).

Largest Instrumented Earthquake in Jammu & Kashmir
8 October 2005 - Kashmir-Kohistan, Pakistan-India border, Mw 7.6
34.432 N, 73.537 E, D=020.0 kms, OT=03:50:40 UTC
A major earthquake struck the India-Pakistan border on the morning of 8 October 2005. It had a magnitude of Mw=7.6 and was felt strongly in much of Pakistan, northern India and eastern Afghanistan. The earthquake resulted in more than 80,000 deaths in northern Pakistan and adjoining parts of Jammu & Kashmir, India and is by far one of the deadliest in the sub-continent. At least 10 people also died in other parts of north India (including 1 person in the Dehradun region) and 4 in Afghanistan due to this earthquake. Tremors from the earthquake were felt more than a thousand kilometres away in the Indian states of Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh.

Significant Earthquakes in Jammu & Kashmir
The following list briefly outlines known earthquakes in this region. General locations are provided for historical events for which "generalized" epicentral co-ordinates are available. Some events which were significant for other reasons are also included. This list will be updated whenever newer information is available. Please note that Magnitude and Intensity are NOT THE SAME. All events are within the state or union territory covered on this page unless stated otherwise.

Acronyms Used:
D=Depth, OT=Origin Time, Mw=Moment Magnitude, Ms=Surface Wave magnitude, Mb=Body Wave Magnitude, ML=Local Magnitude, M?=Magnitude Type unknown

This listing will be modified without notice. Please check back for the latest version when using it elsewhere. Additionally, please reproduce using appropriate CITATIONS/CREDITS.

 

6 June 1828 - Srinagar area (Jammu & Kashmir), M 6.0 (TS)
34.08N, 74.833E
This earthquake caused widespread devastation in Srinagar and other parts of the Kashmir Valley. 1,000 people were killed in this earthquake.

30 May 1885 - NW of Srinagar (Jammu & Kashmir), M 7.0 (TS)
34.60N, 74.38E
This earthquake is one of the deadliest shocks in Kashmir. It was centred just north of the Wular Lake. It jolted the Valley of Kashmir and along with it Srinagar, Baramulla and Sopur. 3,200 people are said to have been killed in this earthquake. There were also unconfirmed reports of fissures in the ground as a result of the quake. The Kamiari area was totally destroyed.

17 May 1917 - Ladakh (Jammu & Kashmir), M 6.0 (TS)
21:45:50 UTC, 34.20N, 77.50E

11 November 1921 - Ladakh (Jammu & Kashmir), M 6.0 (TS)
01:18:45 UTC, 34.20N, 77.50E

15 November 1937 - Northern Ladakh (Indo-China Border region), M 6.0 (TS)
21:37:22 UTC,35.10N, 78.10E

22 June 1945 - Near Padua, Kathwa District, J&K (H.P.-J&K Border region), M 6.0 (TS)
18:00:51 UTC, 32.599N, 75.90E

10 July 1947 - Near Padua, Kathwad District, J&K (H.P.-J&K Border region), M 6.0 (TS)
10:19:20 UTC, 32.599N, 75.90E

12 August 1950 - Near Padua, Kathwad District, J&K (H.P.-J&K Border region), M 6.0 (TS)
03:59:06 UTC, 32.599N, 75.90E

12 August 1950 - Gilgit Wazarat (P.O.K.), M 6.0 (TS)
06:16:12 UTC, 36.20N, 73.00E

12 September 1951 - Chamba-Udhampur Districts (H.P.-J&K Border region), M 6.0 (TS)
20:41:48UTC, 33.30N, 76.50E

17 June 1962 - Udhampur District (Jammu & Kashmir), M 6.0 (TS)
04:39:26.6 UTC, 33.30N, 76.20E

22 June 1965 - Ladakh (Jammu & Kashmir), M 6.1 (TS)
05:49:18.90 UTC, 36.30N, 77.70E

28 December 1974 - NE of Malakhand, NWFP, (Indo-Pakistan Border region), Ms 6.2 (NEIC)
12:11:43.70 UTC, 35.054N, 72.870E, 22kms depth

28 April 1975 - Aksai Chin (Indo-China Border region), Ms 6.3 (NEIC)
11:06:43.50 UTC, 35.819N, 79.915E, 33 kms depth.

12 September 1981 - Gilgit Wazarat (P.O.K.), Mw 6.1 (HRV), mb 6.2 (NEIC)
07:15:54.17 UTC, 35.693N, 73.594E, 33 kms depth
Atleast 220 people were killed, 2,500 were injured in the Gilgit region. There were also unconfirmed reports of surface faulting. The shock was felt in Srinagar (J&K, India) and in Peshawar and Rawalpindi (Pakistan).

6 July 1986 - Xizang (Indo-China Border region), Ms 6.1 (NEIC)
19:24:22.99 UTC,34.424N, 80.161E, 9kms depth

5 March 1990 - Gilgit Wazarat (P.O.K.) Ms 6.0 (NEIC)
20:47:00.76 UTC, 36.907N, 73.021E, 12 kms depth

25 March 1990 - Gilgit Wazarat (P.O.K.), Ms 6.3 (NEIC)
14:17:18.82 UTC,37.034N, 72.942E, 33 kms depth

19 November 1996 - Aksai Chin (Indo-China Border region), Mw 6.9 (GS)
10:44:46.06 UTC, 35.345N, 78.133E, 33 kms depth
Felt in Hotan, Shule, Wushi and Yecheng (Xizang), China

28 January 2002 - Kithar, Jammu & Kashmir, Mw 5.3
33.100 N, 75.987 E, D=30.8 kms, OT=22:33:42 UTC
A moderate earthquake struck southern Jammu & Kashmir and adjoining parts of Himachal Pradesh, on 28 January 2002 at 04:03 AM local time. It had a magnitude of Mw=5.3 and was felt strongly in parts of the region.

1 November 2002 - Astore Valley, P.O.K., Mw 5.3
35.361 N, 74.718 E, D=29.3 kms, OT=22:09:28 UTC
A moderate earthquake struck the Astore Valley in the Kashmir Himalayas, on 2 November 2002 at 03:39 AM local time that killed 1 person. It had a magnitude of Mw=5.3. This earthquake was followed by additional moderate events on November 3rd and 21st, that resulted in further damage and casualties.

3 November 2002 - Astore Valley, P.O.K., Mw 5.3
35.359 N, 74.636 E, D= 15.1 kms,  OT=07:33:35 UTC
A moderate earthquake struck the Astore Valley in the Kashmir Himalayas, on 3 November 2002 at 12:33 PM local time killing 17 people and causing damage to property. It had a magnitude of Mw=5.3. This earthquake followed a similar sized earthquake on 2 November and was followed by a larger event on 21 November 2002.

20 November 2002 - Astore Valley, P.O.K., Mw 6.3
35.345 N, 74.592 E, D=13.0 kms, OT=21:32:27 UTC
A strong earthquake struck the Astore Valley in the Kashmir Himalayas, on 21 November 2002 at 03:02 AM local time killing 23 people and causing damage to property. It had a magnitude of Mw=6.3.

8 October 2005 - Kashmir-Kohistan, Pakistan-India border, Mw 7.6
34.432 N, 73.537 E, D=020.0 kms, OT=03:50:40 UTC
A major earthquake struck the India-Pakistan border on the morning of 8 October 2005. It had a magnitude of Mw=7.6 and was felt strongly in much of Pakistan, northern India and eastern Afghanistan. The earthquake resulted in more than 80,000 deaths in northern Pakistan and adjoining parts of Jammu & Kashmir, India and is by far one of the deadliest in the sub-continent. At least 10 people also died in other parts of north India and 4 in Afghanistan due to this earthquake. Tremors from the earthquake were felt more than a thousand kilometres away in the Indian states of Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh.

23 October 2005 - Kashmir-Kohistan aftershock, Mw 5.3
34.884 N, 73.024 E, D=10.0 kms, OT=04:16:48 UTC
A moderate aftershock struck the Kashmir Himalayas on 23 October 2005 at 15:04 UTC. It was felt strongly in Kashmir & the NWFP, causing additional damage to buildings weakened in the 8 October 2005 earthquake. It had a magnitude of Mw=5.3.


References
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02) Dattatrayam, R.S., Kamble, V.P. and Srivastava, H.N., "Source Charachteristics of Some Foreshocks and Aftershocks of Oct.20, 1991 Uttarkashi Earthquake vis-a-vis the Himalayas earthquakes", Uttarkashi Earthquake, Geological Society of India, Memoir 30, 1995.


03) Bilham, R., V. K. Gaur and P. Molnar, Himalayan Seismic Hazard, Science, 293, 1442-4, 2001.

04) Dasgupta, S., Pande, P., Ganguly, D., Iqbal, Z, Sanyal, K, Venkatraman, N.V., Dasgupta, S., Sural, B., Harendranath, L., Mazumdar, K., Sanyal, S., Roy, K., Das, L.K., Misra, P.S., Gupta, H.,  "Seismotectonic Atlas of India and its Environs", Geological Survey of India, 2000.

05) Giardini, D., Gr?, G., Shedlock, K.M., Zhang, P., "The GSHAP Global Seismic Hazard Map", Annali di Geofisica, Vol. 42, No.6, p. 1225 - 1230, 1999.

06)
India Meteorological Department, Lodhi Road, New Delhi.

07) I
S 1893 (Part 1): 2002 Indian Standard Criteria for Earthquake Resistant Design of Structures Part 1 General Provisions and Buildings (Fifth Revision).

08) Iyengar, R.N, Sharma, D, and Siddiqui, J.M, "Earthquake History of India in Medieval Times", Indian Journal of history Science, 34 (3), 1999.

09)
Mathur, S.M., "Physical Geology of India", National Book Trust of India, 1998.

10) Pacheco, Javier F., and Sykes, Lynn R., "Seismic moment catalog of large shallow earthquakes, 1900 to 1989", Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, v. 82, no. 3, p. 1306 - 1349, 1992.

11)
Rao, B. Ramalingeswara and Rao, P. Sitapathi, "Historical seismicity of Peninsular India", Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, Vol. 74, No. 6, pp.2519-2533, 1984.

12)
Tandon, A.N., and Srivastava, H.N., "Earthquake occurrence in India: Earthquake Engineering (Jai Krishna Vol.)", pp. 1 - 48, Sarita Prakashan, Meerut, 1974.

13)
U.S. Geological Survey, National Earthquake Information Center, Golden, CO, USA.

14) Harvard Centroid Moment Tensor Solutions.

15)
Bilham, R., Bodin, P. and Jackson, M., "Entertaining a Great Earthquake in Western Nepal: Historical inactivity and Geodetic Tests for the present state of strain" R. Journal of the Nepal Geological Society, Vol.11(1) 73-78, 1995.

16)
Ambraseys, N. and Jackson, D., "A note on early earthquakes in northern India and southern Tibet", Current Science, Vol. 84, No. 4, 25 February 2003.

17) Wesse
l, P., and Smith, W.H.F., "Free software helps map and display data", EOS Trans., AGU, 1991, 72, 441, 445.

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